Field Notes: Roxburgh’s Ground Orchid

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Roxburgh’s Ground Orchid, by Eric Ramanujam


This is a small, rarely seen small (25 – 35cm tall) orchid – over all my excursions in the region I have seen it only once at the lip of a ravine in Kurumpuram Reserve forest – and at that time I did not know it was an orchid until a friend pointed out its salient features. Its IUCN status is not known, but it finds mention in Appendix II of CITES. Interestingly of the 1,295 species of orchids in the country all are included in Appendix II of CITES, except for the ten species of Paphiopedilum and Renanthera imschootiana, which find prominent mention in Appendix 1. Some may not realise the ramifications of this document: it simply means that if anyone is accused of collecting wild orchids of any species in the wild and possessing them privately and / or without proper documentation they are liable for arrest and prosecution.

It is quite a rare orchid and it would be an interesting exercise to find out its IUCN conservation status, but until date its official status remains DD (Data Deficient) which is the most dangerous category of all as it may disappear simply because its threatened status if any remains unknown and hence cannot be part of any policy which can push for its protection – a sad fate faced by many species of living beings.

Its rarity can be simply fathomed by its range not being clear. Wikipedia mentions that it is “Endemic to the South Deccan” . Way back in 2004 it is said to be recorded in Orissa. In 2006 it was recorded in the Eastern Ghats, Vishakapatnam, Dharmapuri Disrict and Salem and was interestingly used for snake bite – as the authors put it:

“10 – 15 tubers are crushed with 2 – 3 g each pepper and garlic.
 The extract is given orally in snake bite by Konda Reddies of Khammam District”.

Whether the guy given the extract lived or died is not mentioned.

There are beautiful images of this orchid at Talakona Forest in Andhra Pradesh (a wet deciduous forest visited by Bubesh and me, and where our associate S.R. Ganesh of Madras Snake Park has discovered a new species of frog with Bubesh’s help, Tharalu in Karnataka in 2014 and even in nearby Tiruvanamalai in 2015 .

All this goes to show how far back we are in addressing conservation concerns, in particular about a little studied taxon and how far we yet have to go in conserving nature and ourselves.

Further reading:

Misra, S. (2004). Orchids of Orissa. BSMPS, Dehra Dun.

Reddy, Ch.S., K.N. Reddy, C. Pattanaik & V.s. Raju (2006). Ethnobotanical Observations on some Endemic Plants of Eastern Ghats, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10: 82 – 91.


4th Indian Biodiversity Conference, Pondicherry University, 2017

We are pleased to have been partners of the recently concluded Indian Biodiversity Conference, which was held over three days in Pondicherry University from 10th-12th March, 2017.

It is the largest get together of scientists, conservationists, environmentalists, civil society groups and local communities in India.

Three members of the team were closely involved:

  1. Bubesh presented the camera trap study of the mammals in Pitchandikulam Forest
  2. Lourdes presented alternative educational methods in environmental education – a case study from the Kazhuveli bioregion
  3. Parvathi represented women’s groups and their eco-products at a stall throughout the conference

In addition to his own research, Bubesh was one of the national coordinators of the conference. He was also coordinator of a national wildlife photography competition, and judge for both the photography contest and a drawing competition that was held in schools in and around Pondicherry.

In the wildlife photography competition, 250 photographs were received from across India. The top three were selected, along with five more commendations.

Presence and Status of Mammals in Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville

Bubesh gave a paper on the ongoing research into the biodiversity of Pitchandikulam: Status of Mammalian Fauna is a Man-Made Forest Plantation in Auroville, India. The presentation discussed the presence and status of mammals in the study area – which species are present, how many there are, and which systematic methodology was used.

Overall, richness of the fauna in our mature forest in Pitchandikulam, Auroville is as follows, with 213 species documented so far:

Taxa # of Species # of Families
Mammals 20 12
Birds 85 27
Reptiles 35 10
Amphibians 15 5
Butterflies 58 5

Additional data was collected during a camera-trap study, which was published in the abstract book of the conference. A total of ten species belonging to eight families were recorded, and 137 photographs were obtained from three camera traps over 37 days.

Note: an article and photographs from the research will be published here on the blog in a few weeks.


Bubesh’s paper has been awarded Second Prize at the National Seminar of the 4th Indian Biodiversity Congress!

Environmental Education – an ecological, problem-based learning method

Lourdes presented the paper at the conference: Environmental Education using alternative educational methods in rural schools in Tamil Nadu: a case study from the Kazhuveli bioregion. His presentation detailed our activities in alternative education, how we are using these methods to impart knowledge of ecological issues in 14 schools in the Marakkanam block, Tamil Nadu.

This was a grass-roots presentation about our child-centred education method, explaining what we do on the ground with communities and how we use environmental education in an hands-on manner – giving snapshots of fifty ecological classroom projects chosen by the children (eg ponds, the Kazhuveli bioregion, water bodies, trash etc).

Lourdes also spoke about school-based environmental activism in Pudupakkam,  a village whose palm trees were being cut down by villagers and being sold as firewood for brick kilns. The children took it on as a topic, examining the trees and their history, collecting songs about the trees, talking to elders and creating a public drama for the whole village. The effect was clear: the village’s palm trees are no longer being cut down.

He also discussed the model environment centre at the government high school in Nadukuppam, where we have been working for many years.

Some drawings from Pondicherry school students exhibited at the conference

"If every school uses this method, not just for environment but for any subject, the children will not forget what they have learnt for their entire life."
 Lourdes Epinal

Pitchandikulam People: Bubesh (Wildlife Biologist)

Bubesh Guptha in action

One of the most popular activities at Pitchandikulam Forest is our weekly nature and birdwatching walk, on Fridays at 4pm. The man pointing our attention upwards through the forest canopy the trees as we walk along is wildlife biologist Dr. Bubesh Guptha, and to celebrate his receiving the Smt.S.P. Sarojini Memorial Young Scientist Award (2017), we decided to interview him to find out more about the man in the tiger top.


“  I can’t exactly say that I always knew that I wanted to be a biologist. I did my BSc in Botany, but I didn’t have an ambition to be a scientist or a botanist. During my degree, I was more interested in folk dancing – back in 2001 I got the state level second prize for Tamil folk dance! So after my degree, I wasn’t planning to continue on a postgraduate degree, but to get a job of some kind. Suddenly one of my teachers approached me about a place on a Masters in Wildlife Biology. When I joined, I didn’t even have any basic knowledge about wildlife.

We had to take theory papers, follow seminars – the theory was very difficult for me. Playing cricket always took priority, even during exam times. Exams were about finishing as soon as possible so I could watch the cricket.

In my MSc we had to compete a project. I told my supervisor I wanted to do my dissertation on snakes. I don’t know why I liked snakes so much, but I wanted to be a snake catcher, I thought it was crazy, something different in the field. I live in a rural area, and noone in my area is doing this kind of thing. I didn’t like birds – and my supervisor was a bird specialist. But it made sense to go with his area of expertise, and he suggested that I focus on the wetland birds in Pichavaram, and that we go on a three-week field trip. Research trips like this are very expensive – taking buses for 150km, going out on boats, food, accommodation. One day in Pichavaram, I was looking under a bridge for nests, and I fell on the molluscs in the water, scratching up my entire body. The shells in the water are like knives there. My supervisor started laughing. He said, “Bubesh, this is fieldwork. Only when you are full of blood, can you say that you are really doing fieldwork!”

I needed some financial support, and my supervisor helped me to find some work in an animal research institute in Coimbatore as a project assistant in a wetland and wetland birds study. The institute, the Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, specialised in ornithology and biodiversity. I went to the interview, reading up on common water birds on the way down as I really didn’t know much about birds at all – only what I’d learnt in my three week field trip. Somehow I got the job.

The project was to go to all the wetlands in Tamil Nadu and to study the status of the wetlands and the status of the birds. I went there, took photographs, and in total covered 77 wetlands in 8 districts of Tamil Nadu. After finishing that project, I knew a lot more about water birds. It was only then that I realised the importance of biodiversity, because before that project I had no money and no equipment, and in this project, I got a very good camera, good binoculars, GPS, travelling allowance, daily allowance, unlimited food, accommodation, vehicle hire, and a fellowship. I thought to myself – why are the government spending so much money on one person? What is this biodiversity? After that I started reading books, watching seminars, attending conferences. This opened my eyes to what biodiversity is. For the first time, I could see that this was the future – the way to do real work, without worrying about travel expenses or anything like that. Also, I got the opportunity to take photographs, and I was given credit when it was published – I got publicity, credit, good salary – this was a great opportunity.

After the project finished, I found another job in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu at the Central Soil and Water Conversation Research and Training Institute in Ooty. The job was to undertake a fied survey on the afforested shola (South Indian grassland forest) and swamps in the Nilgiri district, as a junior research fellow. Because I already knew about the technical aspects of fieldwork, like collecting samples and using GPS, I got the job. Thanks to my previous job, I was the only one who had experience of this type of advanced technology.

Royal Bengal Tiger, photo: Bubesh Guptha

I worked there for a year, and then I was called for a vacancy in forest-related biodiversity studies in Andhra Pradesh. At that time, I knew very little about forests. I knew about wetlands, and about swamps, but not forests. The job was as a biologist working in a biodiversity inventory in the Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, the largest tiger reserve in India. That was my first forest job – a real forest, a tiger reserve. A big difference to working wiht water birds around villages or concentrating on plants, soil testing and so on in the shola. It was a big jump straight to tigers! I didn’t know much about wildlife then.

I worked there for two and a half years, but it was two days travel from my family, so I got homesick. Also I didn’t know how to speak Telugu. So I wanted to move nearer. Luckily I was called by the Nellapattu and Pulicat Bird Sanctuaries, for a job as wetlands bird specialist, much closer to home on the border between Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh – only an hour from Chennai. That was a happy time, easy for me to come home for family festivals like Deepavali or Pongal. I could enjoy my wildlife and my family life, it was perfect.

We conducted awareness camps and surveys. I learned enough Telugu to communicate with the forest staff and local children. The sanctuaries are controlled by the Conservator of Forests in Tirupati, part of the Andhra Pradesh Department of Forests, and soon I was being asked to help in other locations like the Sri Venkadeshwara National Park.
I spent two and a half years working there, in the different sanctuaries and national parks. Then the Forest Department had some financial issues, so although I was happy, I needed to do find some more work. I joined the Wildlife Institue of India, the biggest in the country, in Uttarkhand in the Himalayas, as research personnel in the All India Tiger Monitoring Project. I’d already worked with tigers, so I felt very comfortable working there, and they were happy with me.

And that time, I started to publish in some journals. The first two or three papers were a difficult experience: I didn’t know how to do analyses, how to write in that academic style. The papers were full of reviews and comments: the first one I got back from the journal was fully red with comments! So I asked for help from scientists I knew, and eventually my first paper was published in 2010, then the next paper and then the next. To date, I have  65 papers published, and 7 books.

Metallic tarantula – poecilotheria metallica (photo: Soren Ravn, CC BY-SA 3.0)

After that project finished, again I joined the Andhra Pradesh Forest Department and used what I’d learnt in the Wildlife Institue of India. The government of India had declared the area of the national park as a biosphere reserve. I was a wildlife biologist there, working with snakes, reptiles, amphibians and different mammals. We found so many new records – new species sighted for the first time in India, like the Sri Lankan flying snake.. We also sighted a metallic tarantula, which was only the second sighting in India since its discovery in 1899.

I started my PhD in Zoology in Sri Venkateshwara University there (on the wetland birds of Nellapattu and Pulicat sanctuaries), and got married in Pondicherry, so I wanted to find some wildlife work nearby. That is when I joined Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville. I came here to work with snakes, and was brought in for Pitchandikulam’s snake venom extraction project in the area around Marakkanam. In addition to that, my work here involves butterfly studies, bird studies, and working in biodiversity educations.

We train teachers, students, government civil servants and we have carried out surveys on snakes, birds and mammals. We have published five papers in journals and conferences using research in Pitchandikulam Forest.

I have full research freedom here – this is not at all a nine to five job. Whatever I want to do – research, education, awareness camps, I can do.

Receiving the Smt.S.P. Sarojini memorial Young Scientist award, March 2017

I have received awards for my work – in photography, wildlife research, biodiversity, and was nominated for the Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Conservation Award in Delhi. This month I have received the national Young Scientist of the Year award, and 2014 I received Best Presentation Award at the Indian Biodiversity Congress.

My dream is to become one of top biodiversity experts in India, that whatever happens in India, they should call me first! I need to do more research, publish more, so that everyone will know who I am!    

Bubesh receiving Indian Biodiversity Award, 2014

If You Go Into The Woods Today… Smile!

Jungle Cat (Felis chaus) in Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville
Jungle Cat (Felis chaus) in Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville

Who exactly lives in Pitchandikulam Forest? We’ve met (we’re pretty sure) all the human inhabitants, but what about our mammal brethren? Starting in August and armed with a barrage of cameras, our research team set out to conduct the first camera trap study in our area of Tamil Nadu, in order to better understand which species are currently living here with us.

A camera trap system is especially useful for estimating populations of nocturnal, more ‘shy’ mammals. As in every forest ecosystem, the wildlife population is constantly changing from one day to the next, and so the first step in order to estimate best where to put the cameras was to conduct a sign survey – walking the forest in search of evidence like pellets, footprints and droppings. The team readily identified the presence of carnivores such as mongoose, civet cat and jungle cat, and the cameras were soon set up on trees 50cm from the ground, pointing at the most promising areas.

Three camera traps were operational for 24 hours a day over a period of 37 days, and they took 137 photographs.

Below is a table of the ten species we identified. The most common species recorded was the Asian Palm Civet (40.9 %) followed by the Small Indian Civet (16.8%), Grey mongoose (10.9%), Indian Crested Porcupine (8.8%), Jungle Cat (8%), Black naped Hare (6.6 %), Chital (4.4%). The Golden Jackal and Bonnet Macaque were captured twice (1.5%).

Most excitingly, we recorded on camera a Rusty-Spotted Cat (prionailurus rubiginosus),  which is in the “Near Threatened” category on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This is the first time that this mammal has been sighted on the Coromandel Coast.

Bonnet Macaque in Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville
Bonnet Macaque in Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville
Spotted Deer in Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville
Spotted Deer in Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville
Rusty Spotted Cat in Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville
Rusty Spotted Cat in Pitchandikulam Forest, Auroville

Results of the ten species documented are as follows, with the number of recorded sightings over the survey period on the left:

Serial No. Count Common Name Scientific Name Family Order IUCN Status IWPA Schedule
1 2 Golden Jackal Canis aureus Canidae Carnivora Least Concern Schedule II Part II
2 2 Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata Cercopithecidae Primates Least Concern Schedule II Part I
3 4 Spotted Deer Axis axis Cervidae Artiodactyla Least Concern Schedule III
4 9 Jungle Cat Felis chaus Felidae Carnivora Least Concern Schedule II Part II
5 1 Rusty- Spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus Felidae Carnivora Near Threatened Schedule I Part I
6 12 Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii Hespertidae Carnivora Least Concern Schedule II Part II
7 10 Indian Crested Porcupine Hystrix indica Hystricidae Carnivora Least Concern Schedule II Part I
8 7 Black Naped Hare Lepus nigricollis Leporidae Lagomorpha Least Concern Schedule IV
9 17 Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Viverridae Carnivora Least Concern Schedule II Part II
10 13 Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica Viverridae Carnivora Least Concern Schedule II Part II

We are interested to talk to interested people to help with wildlife and botanical documentation and surveying. If you would like to know more about our work or volunteer for one of our forthcoming projects, please get in touch with Dr Bubesh Guptha.


The full paper is now published as:  A photographic record of the Rusty-spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) in a forest plantation on the east coast of Tamil Nadu, India, M. Bubesh Guptha & M. Eric Ramanujam, Journal of Threatened Taxa, 26 May 2017 | Vol. 9| No. 5 | Pp. 10242–10245

and is available for download.